OPHTHALMOLOGIST IN TURIN, ITALY
Diagnosis and treatment for child and adult strabismus.

Cutting-edge laser and hi-tech interventions for cataracts, maculopathy, retinopathy, and all the main ones.
Visual Defects and Eye Diseases.

Ophthalmologist Consultant
Juventus Football Club

STRABISMUS

Strabismus (Misaligned Eyes)

Strabismus (misaligned eyes) means any misalignment of the ocular axes. It affects about 3-4% of the population. Most of the strabismus cases in children are the result of an abnormal neuromuscular control of the extraocular...

Nystagmus

Nystagmus is a clinical sign that refers to oscillatory, rhythmic, involuntary movements of ocular globes, and it manifests itself for several causes: • Inner ear (vestibular) problems • Inability to main gaze position • Disorders...

Esotropia

Primary Infantile Esotropia Primary infantile esotropia is the inward deviation of one or both eyes. It usually begins at birth or early in life when the part of the brain that controls the ability to...

Amblyopia – Lazy Eye

Amblyopia is a decreased vision in an eye or both. In essence, it is the underdevelopment of the visual function of the eye. The term amblyopia is from a Greek word that literally means “lazy...

Brown Syndrome

Brown Syndrome is a mechanical condition caused by an altered curve of the superior oblique muscle that moves through a ring of tissue surrounding it, which prevents the lower eye from raising the eye inward....
duane syndrome

Duane Syndrome

Duane Syndrome includes a group of congenital pathologies of extraocular muscles that cause abnormal eye movements. Patients with Duane Syndrome usually have difficulty turning their eyes outward (abduction) or inward (adduction). It is part of...

Exotropia

Primary Infantile Exotropia Primary infantile exotropia is a large angle deviation in which the eye is crooked outward from birth, with etiology unknown. It is often characterized by amblyopia and may be associated with craniofacial...

Moebius Syndrome

Moebius Syndrome is suggested to have congenital hypoplasia or agenesis of the 6th and 7th cranial nerve nuclei as its underlying problem. It is characterized by facial paralysis, the impossibility to move the eyes horizontally,...

Paralytic Strabismus

Paralytic Strabismus Paralysis of the 3rd cranial nerve or common oculomotor nerve The third cranial nerve controls the movements of four muscles moving the eye. This nerve also controls the movements of the pupil, the...

THE EYE EXAMINATION

The eye examination is a fundamental step to diagnose, exclude or monitor any pathology of the visual apparatus in children. This applies from preschool through adolescence and into adulthood.

It is performed by the specialist in ophthalmology (oculist or ophthalmologist), in collaboration with the orthoptist, who specializes in motor and functional disorders of the visual system.

It is extremely important to be able to prevent and treat any eye diseases of genetic origin (strabismus, congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma) or acquired with growth (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, amblyopia) to give an immediate response and a solution to the problem.

The first eye examination of the child is usually performed by hospital staff, 2 days after birth, to ascertain the possible presence of pathologies such as congenital cataracts, melanoma, retinoblastoma, and in the case of premature subjects, retinopathy of the premature infant.

Visual defects

presbyopia

Presbyopia

Presbyopia cannot be classified as a true ocular pathology but as a natural degeneration of the visual apparatus that causes an ever-increasing difficulty in focusing on nearby people and objects. Typical of presbyopia is to...
hyperopia

Hyperopia

In hyperopia, light rays focus behind the retina, so that nearby objects appear clouded. The causes are either a shorter than normal eye or poor focusing power. A modest amount of hyperopia is normal in...
Astigmatism

Astigmatism

In astigmatism, the rays of light are distorted as they enter the eye. Some light rays spin behind the retina and others in front of it. The cause, usually, is a different curvature of the...
myopia

Myopia

In myopia, the light rays are focused on the front of the retina so that distant objects appear clouded and those nearby appear sharp. The causes are either an excessive eyeball length or excessive focusing...

Eye diseases

cataract

Cataract

Cataract consists of the progressive opacification of the crystalline lens, which is normally transparent, due to degenerative phenomena that affect the proteins that make it up. The onset of cataract occurs more frequently after the...
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